Tag Archives: Test Taking

Back at It

It’s been quite a while since I last posted anything. I will admit that there were multiple times I seriously considered sitting down and writing again, I just never got around to doing it. So what have I been doing lately?

First of all, I finished the Neuroscience Module. I wouldn’t exactly say I passed it, even though I did technically pass. My final grade did not equal a pass based on the way the course was introduced to us in March, but because fully 1/3 of the class was in the same situation as I was, they (our overlords) moved that passing percentage a little lower. Why was that class so incredibly terrible? I guess it’s always been bad, it’s just been 10 weeks long for the last two decades. Because my class is going through a new curriculum, the course was supposed to be shortened and streamlined to 7 weeks. My belief is that the course directors just did the shortening and forgot about the streamlining, giving us 10 weeks of hard material in 7 weeks. And so we all just about died during those two months, barely passing.

I certainly liked the subject matter. I remain fascinated with the workings of our brain and the ways that defects can manifest in people’s ability to understand and interpret the world. Despite my terrible performance in the class, I won’t rule Neurology out just quite yet. To get a sense of some of the cool stuff we learned about in Neuro, I’d recommend “The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat” by Oliver Sacks.

So we finished Neurology two weeks ago, and moved into a course called Behavioral Medicine (or something). I attended a few hours of lecture the first day, and then pretty much didn’t go to class for the next two weeks (except for a few required activities, which I mention below). Much of it was basic psychology, which I was familiar with from courses in undergrad, and the rest was easy to learn from the syllabus and online recordings. So those two weeks were more like a vacation than school, even if I did have to cram a little the night before the test (had to learn a bunch of medications), only to show up and take a test so easy I could have passed it without studying. Compared to the previous neuro stuff we were doing, this psych stuff was like taking a nap.

We did have very helpful sessions where we practiced interviewing standardized patients and working through some possible diagnoses. One session stands out because I had to do the history and questions, and I suddenly was not worried about the process of history taking. Instead, I had a list of possibilities in my head, and I had a plan on how I would get a full story and cover my bases on what I thought it could be. That must be how actual doctors feel all the time. It was encouraging, I have to admit.

Now I am writing this post called “Back at It”, but there are really only three weeks of “it” left. After I complete a short course in hematology/oncology, I will be free for the summer. I’ve mentioned before that it is my last summer ever, so I plan to enjoy it as much as I can. I also am less than a year away from taking Step 1, so I ordered a review book from amazon. It’s called “Crush Step 1” (which is my plan), and it’s really heavy for being such an average sized book.

I also hope to write more frequently here, because it’s very relaxing.

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Standardize Me

I didn’t post at all last weekend, even though I really wanted to do so. There are a few good reasons why. Besides unsuccessfully fighting off a cold and studying for three exams this week, I am also incredibly lazy and didn’t have the time or motivation to sit down and write the post that has been on my mind for several weeks. It’s only fitting that I find this motivation shortly before my pathology final, most likely using a blog post as another reason to avoid studying  for this test. As one classmate posted on Facebook so accurately: “I find that I Netflix better with study going on in the background”.

I don’t even have to study all that hard for this exam. Because of our grading system (pass/fail) and the assignments and tests I have already completed give me all but six points I need to pass the class. To put in another way, I need to get just 6/100 questions correct to pass this class. I could do that in my sleep. Don’t worry, I will study hard and do fine. (Edit: I actually did pretty well on it).

Our Pathology overlords are doing us a bit of a favor, they tell us. All of their exam questions are “board style”, similar to the format we can expect when we take Step 1 next year. This means that we take the exams on our computers through secure browsers, and that some of the multiple choice questions have options a-h instead of a-e.

Our questions are slightly harder than this, by the way.

Another way we are being prepared for Step 1 is that we are doing everything way faster than previous classes have ever done anything. As I write this in the first week of March, we have already completed all of the Year 1 curriculum. Next week we will begin Year 2 curriculum. The benefits to us include more time to study for Step 1, and more time in rotations before having to make important residency decisions. This all seems like a good idea to me, but we are the guinea pigs in this little experiment, so only time (and our board scores) will tell how it worked out.

This got me thinking about all of the standardization we are receiving. The main goal of the first two years of medical education is to perform well on Step 1. My understanding is that this test makes sure new medical students have an appropriate amount of basic medical knowledge before entering the wards and practicing on real patients. This actually works out very well for me, as I have a long history of crushing standardized tests (including NBME pathology most recently).

Recently my brother-in-law graduated from the police academy. Police officers have a very important and challenging job not unlike a doctor. They have a huge body of knowledge to learn, including the geography of their city, procedures of their department, legality issues, physical ability to drive, arrest, restrain, and I know many cops that have a highly developed “sixth sense” that gets them out of dangerous situations. Even my limited EMS experience has shown me the value of this sixth sense, but I doubt it could be taught.

Now if the police academy worked like medical school, they would spend 2 years in a classroom watching powerpoint presentations on street layouts, with the dangerous areas highlighted. They would take multiple choice exams on how to handle interactions with dangerous suspects, maybe watch videos on driving skills. Thankfully, my brother’s academy didn’t work like this at all. He rode with cops, listened to their advice, and saw firsthand dangerous areas of town. He went to an abandoned runway and spent an afternoon learning defensive driving techniques.

Medical school isn’t taught like that, and I’m not even sure it should be. All I know is that medical school has been taught the same way for a very long time, which is why it is so standardized. There is a well defined process to becoming a doctor, steeped in tradition and learning. If improving the quality of medical education came at the cost of leaving behind those traditions, would anyone attempt it? Will there be a series of huge sweeping changes in the coming years, or will innovation come in small steps, creeping along over the years?

I’ll have to think more about this, but it’s something that will be on my mind as I work my way through medical school.

This post is now very late, but thank you for reading!

 

Test Taking and Last Summer Ever

As usual, I find myself in the mood to write on Sunday afternoon. I suspect that my weekly doughnut at church on Sunday morning has something to do with my inspiration to publish posts on WordPress. Maybe my muse is a maple doughnut. Anyways, this week I was asked the following question: “When was the last time you felt mediocre?” Since I’m in medical school, the answer is “every single day”. I’ve written before about how much stress is caused by combining a bunch of smart people into one class and suddenly having smart become “average”, and it’s something our deans have mentioned about twice a month since August.

Our tests reinforce this every week. Consider our last pathology quiz/exam. Fifty multiple choice questions taken using secure software installed on our laptops. It covered hundreds of pages from Robbins (the holy grail of pathology, it’s a huge book the size of a watermelon) and was a fairly difficult exam. When we got our results, the median came out to be 80%, which is actually pretty good. Some inconsiderate soul actually got a 98%, and one person barely passed with a 50% (because of the way our quizzes are graded, you can still pass with a 50%, even though it’s normally an F). The median was 80%, and by definition half of our class has to fall underneath that score. That’s just the way math works. For those that are under it, there is a perception of inadequacy. For those above it, life must be awesome. I hop frequently between being just above and just below the median score, so I’m doing okay.

So obviously our 98% guy was an outlier, because the next best score was a 90. So the 98% guy needs to let himself out of the library. The 50% guy was also an outlier, and he needs to find the library. A full 55% of our class got between a 76%-84% on the exam. I know what that means in real life….we all did just fine. Yet I am annoyed when I score a few points below the average on a particular exam, even though I know that means I’m tracking just fine along with everyone else. I’m sure the guy that got a 98% is upset as well (not 100%? No sleep for me next week!!).

On to my next subject…summer time. I need it to be summer ASAP. I grew up in California, enjoying nearly endless summer weather, and after I moved to the Midwest I discovered that I am solar powered. When we have cloudy, gloomy, grey weather for weeks on end I lose any motivation to keep up with life (exercise, study hard, clean the house, wear pants, etc). This summer has a special feature…it will be my LAST SUMMER EVER. Yes indeed. After (hopefully) passing Hematology on June 6th, I get 8 full weeks off of school. Next summer I will have time off. Instead, I will start my third year (clinical rotations), which is simultaneously exciting and terrifying.

So what do MS1’s tend to do with their LAST SUMMER EVER? Some people do career enhancing activities like research fellowships, internships, volunteer activities, etc. Other people travel for fun. Some people get part time jobs, others do nothing for the summer. Because I felt the pressure to do important things, I currently have applied for a number of summer fellowships that would be good for my CV and pay me a small amount of money for six weeks. Then I talked with a professor who changed my mind a little. He said that if I only wanted to do research to have it on my CV, then I shouldn’t do it. Instead, I should do whatever sounded enjoyable to me. As the director of a residency program at our hospital, he said it really doesn’t matter what they did over their M1 summer (unless they singlehandedly saved an African village from an exotic virus). He’s far more interested in their board scores and letters of recommendation from rotations. So while I have hopes for landing a fellowship this summer, much of the stress in the competition of getting that spot is reduced, if not gone. I can’t do nothing all summer, because historically I get cabin fever after 4 days of break from school. If nothing works out, I will probably get involved with ministries at my church, study for boards, and run a lot. We’ll see how it works out. What are your summer plans?

Thanks for reading!

Wrapping It Up

This week concludes Cell Biology, Metabolism, and Genetics. We will take the last exam on Friday. Despite my abysmal performance on the last quiz (and passing Epidemiology and Research by the skin of my teeth), I need to score just a 36% on this final test in order to pass the block and never see any of these subjects again (until Step 1). Tomorrow is given entirely for self study in preparation for the exam, which will be followed by a glorious weekend with NOTHING to study before anatomy begins next Monday.

I’m actually a little bit worried about that. I am comfortable with brute memorization and have fairly good visual skills, so the material isn’t too unsettling. What worries me is this new format. A 10 week course in the past has been re-packaged into 7 weeks. Apparently the amount of dissection has remained unchanged, which is potentially bad news. They reduced the amount of histology and cross section lab work, while adding more clinical applications and emphasizing radiology reading (something we will have to actually use). A few second years told me that it will be much better than their schedule. We start dissection on the back, then switch to the front and work from the head down. Some second years told me that they had passed the course by acing exams until they hit the waist, at which point they slacked off. One girl mentioned she knew almost nothing about the lower legs and feet, since she didn’t really go to class for that part. That’s hilarious, if true, and reminds me of this.

I may fall into that same trap, because Week 5 or 6 of anatomy coincides with the release of about 3 of my favorite video games, as well as my birthday. I plan to do well and study hard, but my scores may decrease slightly after November begins 🙂

Ready for a big reason why I may fail this next exam? Here it is.

This is little Zoe, the newest addition to our family. I had a post in draft describing all of the reasons I wanted a dog, and finally convinced my wife to go to an adoption event last weekend because we saw that cute little pup on Craigslist. Now she is ours. She is part Rottweiler/Doberman, but is pretty small. Her mom is only 35 pounds, and she shouldn’t get bigger than that. She is recovering from pneumonia right now, so her endurance for romping in the yard is about 10 minutes. Let me tell you, there is NOTHING in the world sadder than a 4.5lb puppy with pneumonia. NOTHING.

She’s doing pretty good on housetraining and basic stuff, and is pretty chill for a puppy. In high school and college our family dog was a big yellow lab, 90lbs of love and spastic crazy tail. Our house and yard aren’t great for a dog of that…..girth. I like big dogs, and Zoe is a good compromise.

Despite my prolonged periods of non-posting, I have noticed continued views on posts in my absence. How cool is that? And if you are reading my blog from Australia please email me and tell me how you found it. If you Google “basically useless”, am I on the front page? Should I be excited about that?

In all seriousness, I have a theory I call the Blogger’s Paradox: those with the least time to write blogs often have incredible material to work with, should they decide to write. I have read blogs in the past where posts were frequent and the authors time was obviously plentiful, but the quality just wasn’t there. People who have different experiences on a daily basis can pull from that and write strong blogs, if they have the time. One benefit of medical is taking a daily swim in the pool of weird stuff, whether it’s diseases, classmates, or the strange things professors do and say. I try to make writing a daily habit, and I largely succeed, but the result is not always ready to be published, so I often have drafts and scraps floating around for days on end. Any time a big test looms in the future, however, you can count on posts while I do my best to not study 🙂

Thanks for reading! As always, feel free to comment below or send an email directly to my face at sortadrwordpress@gmail.com

What is Happening?

As I sit in my comfiest chair with sweet tea on the table next to me and no class until tomorrow (yes, I am done at noon today), I can’t help but marvel at what a glorious week of medical school this has been. After miraculously beating the average on the last exam (despite spending hours doing house projects with my wife), this week has been cake. A main focus has been epidemiology and biostatistics, which sounds hard, but really it’s just common sense with a little bit of math thrown in. There have been a few Cell Biology/Metabolism lectures thrown in, but we have covered a fraction of the material I was expecting. The rest of the time has been taken up with optional small group exercises (nope), clinical skills groups (already done), and sessions on our non-optional electives.

Ah yes, electives. Electives are courses you want to take, right? I took some in undergrad, like swimming, wine tasting, etc. Not in medical school. My university has decreed that between now and April, we will occasionally be given an afternoon off to pursue our individual interests, so long as we are interested specifically in their University sponsored electives. A quick glance at the offerings is not encouraging. Research, while helpful, has so few spots that 4% of our class will fill it up. Some bogus options include an online Sexual Health and Gender Studies course, which isn’t actually accredited, but somehow counts as an elective, as well as the ridiculous and potentially hilarious seminar called “Acting Like A Doctor”. There are some other electives that involve health literacy advocacy, disparity in health outcomes, and even lobbying stuff for local legislation.

I should be fair and say that there are some legitimately good options here. For example, I would enjoy tutoring immigrant high school students in math and science. I have a strong background in tutoring and really enjoy it, so a position like that sounds great. Unfortunately, the good options are so few that they will be gone faster than the Jimmy John’s turkey sandwiches at a lunch meeting. I should also mention that the popular electives are filled by lottery. I have a pretty solid history of never winning anything that involves luck, so that rules me out of any good lottery electives.

My last hope, of course, is the vague and potentially awesome “Self-Designed Electives”. I have a few ideas that fit nicely with my interests, as well as the reasons I will be using to encourage their approval.

1) Gainful Employment – In the interests of not being broke, I would like to utilize this time to make money, so that I can put gas in my car and drive to school every day of the week. I have worked enough places in the past that I could likely find a job near my house. I could probably tutor local undergrad and high school students as well (I already hope to do this on the side, I could just do a lot more on my afternoons off- I mean “doing electives”)

2) Self Designed Study – Effects of consistent napping on memory retention. In this individual study I will compare my ability to study with or without a nap. My controls will be every day that isn’t elective day, when I study without a nap. On elective days I will nap (they recommend spending at least 4 hours per day on your elective) for at LEAST 4 hours, then see if I am able to recall more material after studying. I have to admit, this sounds like an ideal elective.

It also sounds vaguely scientific.

3) Dietary Education in the Community – In this activity (which would probably require funding), I would spend time in the community gathering information that would directly enhance the lives of my classmates. Specifically, I would eat at multiple local restaurants and determine which places serve great food. Because there are so many restaurants in this city, this elective could potentially last for two years, if the funding is there.

4) Writing and Self Development – In this elective, I take entire afternoons to not study. Instead, I could write for my readers on this blog, work on my book, and develop my self. This sounds pretty great, especially if my book were more than a 20 page Word Document and a notebook of scribbled ideas. Oh well.

On a more serious note, I will probably find a decent elective and do something productive. Hopefully.

What does everyone think of the design here? My very talented brother in-law helped me design it, and I think it’s awesome. If you also think it’s awesome, let me know in the comments.

Thanks for reading!

How to Not Get Into Medical School

Since I have an exam tomorrow, it is natural to assume that I am doing lots of things that are not studying. We were given the entire day off to prepare for this exam, and I have managed maybe 4-5 hours of actual studying today. The rest I spent distracted for no reason, or helping my wife with stuff around the house. Now I’m writing, soon to go for a run, and maybe at some point study again.

I do want to touch on a topic that I think many people wonder, especially pre-meds that stumble onto this blog in the future. Also, I get asked this all the time by friends I made during undergrad that have been doing their AMCAS over the last summer. As an undergrad, I wanted to know how to get into medical school, and I wanted it straight from the source: the medical students. I figured that because they got in, they must have it figured out.

Then I got accepted into medical school and realized the truth. While there are some real lessons to be more successful, medical school admissions can be a pretty arbitrary process. It’s actually more of a crap shoot than you would like to think. I gave myself less than a 1% chance of getting in to my current school, yet here I am. My state school, where I considered myself very competitive (higher than average stats, etc) didn’t even put me on their waitlist. Why? No clue.

And so if you are looking for tips on getting in (and I know you are), I would like to refer you to anywhere else except this blog. I actually have far more experience being rejected by schools than accepted by them, so that will be my focus for this post. If you do these things, you will make yourself a much easier rejection.

1. Tank the MCAT.

I almost don’t want to start here, but I think I should. I’m not saying it’s fair, and I’m not saying I like it, but medicine is very performance based. Medical schools care a lot about the way you will perform on bigger and harder tests, and the best way for them to judge that is your score on your most recent test. There may or may not be a minimum score at your dream school, but my admissions directly told our class (quite honestly, I thought) that they make a HUGE first cut based solely off of MCAT scores. He acknowledged that there were likely great applicants in that category, but due to time constraints they had to draw a line somewhere. If you are currently pre-med, I’m sorry. This only adds to the stress associated with the test, and I get that. I want to encourage you that it isn’t that bad. Just don’t screw it up 🙂

2- Do anything really stupid.

This should go without saying, but it happens fairly often and is really important. Do not cheat (or even worse, get caught cheating). If at all possible, do not withdraw from a class during undergrad. If possible, stay at the same school for four years. DO NOT GET CONVICTED WITH A FELONY. If you make it to the interview part of applications, your chances are much improved. At this point, they are mostly looking for red flags, and part of that search is a standard background check. Even misdemeanors can be red flags. Your goal is not to be perfect, just to give them less things to worry about when considering your application. They will notice things like withdrawals, and ask you about them, so either stick it out or have a good reason for it. This dovetails nicely with my next point

3- Fail A Class

It is nice to have a good GPA, but that’s about it. What’s the difference between a 3.7 and a 3.85 if the students went to two different schools, took different classes, and had different professors? Who knows? Who cares? GPA is dumb, and most applicants will have pretty solid GPA’s. A surprising number will have 3.9+. You don’t need a 4.0 to get in to a medical school, but if you fail a class (or a few) you will make life much harder. In undergrad, especially, there are so many ways to improve your score. Seek help from the professor, classmates, tutors, etc. Ask for extra credit, or ways to improve your score. Don’t bother your professor and beg for extra points if you get a B in Organic Chemistry, but make sure you work hard enough that you never find yourself begging for a C.

4 – Expect Too Much

I will tie this in to a talk our deans gave us on the first week. They told us that on the first exam, half of our scores would fall below the median (that’s just math). For most of those who scored less than the median, it would be the first time that has happened to us EVER. So by the same token, do not enter the application process convinced of your own superior abilities. Nothing will make you feel more inferior than meeting a genius in your class. I’m talking guys like William Hwang, absolutely legendary (think very hard before reading his bio). If you are considering medical school, you have probably been one of the smartest people in your class since forever. Realize that your class will be, on average, just as smart as you (or in my case, much smarter). Even if your uncle happens to be a Dean at __________ School of Medicine, just understand how many insanely talented people are lining up to pay them 40k per year to go to school.

5- Be Boring

So you’re a biology/chemistry/biochemistry major from __________ University? You volunteered at some clinics and hospitals, did some research in undergrad, and shadowed a neurosurgeon/heart surgeon/ER doc? You’ve also got a minor or two, some fun hobbies, and were involved in six different charities during college? EMT? On academic scholarships? Get in line! Ok, so I’m joking a little bit, but that is a stereotypical mold for medical students. Why? Personally, I think it’s a self fulfilling cycle. Medical schools accept those students because a majority of good applicants fit that mold, so the next cycle of good applicants also fits that mold, so medical schools accept more of the same kind……..repeating over and over again. Otherwise, I have no idea. The point of this is to try to do something interesting, so that you stand out a little bit more. I don’t mean doing another thousand hours of volunteer work, I just mean whatever it is that makes you unique is what you need to capitalize on. Make sure they understand that you also started a business, wrote a book, lived in another country for a few years, etc. I’m the only Ironman triathlete in my class. I don’t know if that helped my application, but I bet it didn’t hurt.

6 – Be a Tool

Doing all of the above will get you rejected from medical school fairly quickly. This last one has more to do with the school than with you. Your MCAT, Step 1, and other stats don’t tell too much about how good of a doctor you will be one day. Schools want to turn out good doctors, both because it’s the right thing to do and because it makes them look better, therefore making them more money. Our Dean told us (at the interview day) that they try to detect traits that can’t be measured, but that will someday make us good doctors. Translation = they try to sift out all the jerks and narcissists as best as they can. Don’t be that guy. I can tell you already that they missed a few, based solely off of a few students that crashed an otherwise productive study session I was having with some friends today. Plus, everyone has a story to share about some terrible doctor they’ve met before, right?

I hope that helped! In all seriousness, feel free to ask questions (or add your own advice) so that over time, somebody, somewhere, will somehow find this useful.

Now what else can I do before I study?

Thanks for reading!

Mind Games

Have you ever taken an IQ test? A real IQ test. By real I mean it is not online, administered by a professional, and takes a few hours to administer. If you’re like me, this probably doesn’t sound like much fun. I had to take one of these back in high school, and it was really interesting. 

One of the exercises was simple memory recall. The person doing the test read me numbers, which I parroted back to him. It started out with him saying something like “Four, six” and I would obediently reply “Four, Six”. Of course he kept going, and next thing I knew I was trying to remember upwards of a dozen random digits. Here’s a test for you to do at home. Read these numbers to yourself, out loud, then close your eyes and try to say them again from memory. Ready? Go.

14829731864

How many did you get? All of them? Most of them? Three of them? Doesn’t matter. Here’s the second part of the test. A different set of random numbers. Repeat the test above

1 583 548 9624

I bet you got most of them that time. Why? Well it’s a phone number! Turns out brains can remember things better when they are grouped into chunks like this. That’s why phone numbers have their distinct pattern of groups, and some states have license plates that consist of two groups of numbers and letters (the phone example isn’t as good as it once was, since most people my age don’t actually know any phone numbers, as they are stored in our iPhones and not our brains.)

That’s a memory trick. Sitting in that IQ test in high school, I began doing this naturally when the numbers I had to remember started to get bigger (more than six stressed my little brain).

So today we were handed our syllabus in class. In most classes the syllabus is a sheet of paper with basic course info and contact info for the professor. At my medical school, however, the syllabus is a set of phone books that, when stacked, are about as high as a coffee mug. They represent the sum total of everything we need to learn before October 4th, at which point we will be given a new set of books and start over. The administration itself has likened the process of learning all of this to “drinking from a fire hose”.

A Dean actually used this slide during orientation last week

So I’m pretty interested in memory tricks. I bet you are as well, whether you are in medical school or elementary school, much of your academic success relies on your ability to retain information and supply it when required on exams. Eventually, just knowing the information is no longer enough, and you are actually required to apply it solve new problems (gasp). 

My school is offering optional memory training sessions for us later in the year, but I need to be learning things today. Thankfully, Year One of medical school is also just like starting 17th grade, so I already have some tricks up my sleeve. Hopefully I’ll learn more and share them with you all (both of you that read my blog 🙂

My first trick is to start with what I know best, then work my way to the hard stuff, then recap on what I know well. This is like…uh..building a bridge over a river, begin and ending with familiar, solid ground. I do this because it helps integrate the harder stuff with the easy stuff, which is my second trick. Some things are just stupid and impossible to learn (I’m looking at you, Organic Chemistry). In these instances, I’ve always benefited by trying to understand how something I don’t understand (that’s pretty much everything) is like something else I do understand (a very small and useless set of knowledge, by the way). 

I also study actively. I don’t just read my notes while watching Netflix. I may have just lied. I sometimes do that, but I first go through and actively outline chapters, draw pathways, summarize systems, etc. This is not a very eco-friendly process. I use up lots of plain paper and sticky notes trying to put all of the pieces together, but then I’ve usually got it. Some people are freaking geniuses and can sort of glance over material, scan it into some freakish mental hard drive, and just recall it at will (I’m not bitter), but I am not one of those people, and you probably aren’t either. Grab your pen or start typing, and the info will stick better. 

Final memory/study tip before I call it quits: go for a run. Or exercise somehow. If I were a responsible writer (which I’m clearly not), I would link to some journal article with a clear positive correlation between exercise and academic success. All I can share is my own personal experience with running, and I KNOW it has made me a better student. Also, I find it hard to believe that having gallons and gallons of highly oxygenated blood pump around your skull a few times can be anything but beneficial.

Class is going well so far. My greatest struggle has been staying warm in our ridiculously frigid lecture hall all day. I’m going to wear a sweater to class tomorrow in the middle of August…crazy. 

Thanks for reading.